SteadyOptions is an options trading forum where you can find solutions from top options traders. TRY IT FREE!

We’ve all been there… researching options strategies and unable to find the answers we’re looking for. SteadyOptions has your solution.

Can Options Assignment Cause Margin Call?


I've had three emails in the past month on people being assigned on positions and receiving margin calls, and generally not knowing what happened. I advise everyone to completely research and become familiar with the exercise/assignment aspect of option trading. If you don't you can find your entire account blown out over a weekend.

Option assignments occur in two basic varieties. First, on expiration Friday (or Thursday or Wednsday depending on the instrument your trading, but most commonly on Friday). If you have a position that is .01 in the money, or more, you WILL be assigned. For instance, if you have a 100 Call on stock XYZ that expires today, and XYZ closes (AFTER HOURS) at 100.01, you will find that you own, sometime Saturday, 100 shares of XYZ that you paid $100/share for.

 

Now this option might have only cost you $100 or so. But all of a sudden, due to the inherent multiplier in options, you are now out of pocket $10,000.00. What if you're account only had $5,000.00 in it? Well, you are going to get both (a) a Regulation T Notice and (b) margin call from your broker. First thing Monday morning, your broker will automatically liquidate the position. What if there is adverse news over the weekend and the opening price is only $80? Well you just lost $2,000.0 -- in a $5,000.00 account. In other words, that $100 option just cost you 40% of your entire account. This happens.

 

What if you had "hedged" the position though, and had a vertical call spread? For instance, you might have bought the $100/$105 spread on XYZ. Well if XYZ closes anywhere above $105 you are ok because BOTH positions will be auto-exercised. This SOMETIMES results in a margin call as well -- but don't worry. Option clear throughout the day on Saturday and your account will frequently show one position and the other not exercised yet. By Sunday morning it will be fixed. By way of example, I had a very large position (for me) (20 contracts) in the LNKD 92.5/95 vertical call before earnings. Well earnings did what they were supposed to and LNKD jumped to 104. Well Saturday morning, all of a sudden, I was SHORT 2000 shares of LNKD and had received roughly $190K in cash into my account. This sends off all kinds of margin alerts. I got an email, a call, and another call. Ignore them, they're idiots. The 92.5 side simply hadn't cleared yet. Three hours later the other option cleared, buying the shorts back at 92.5. Then Sunday morning, your account statement will reflect that all trades happened at the same time.

 

HOWEVER, what if, on that 100/105 spread, XYZ closes at 103 on Friday? Well, guess what, you'll be assigned on the 100 position, the 105 will expire worthless, and now your back in margin call.

 

MORAL OF THE STORY:

 

DON'T EVER LET YOURSELF BE ASSIGNED ON A SPREAD THAT'S NOT FAR IN THE MONEY ON BOTH LEGS.

 

assign.jpg

 

What if, on Friday, the price of XYZ was at $106 at close? You better have closed the spread, because of after hours trading. The price of XYZ can move after hours -- but you can't get out of the options. So if the market closes at 106, and you say good, both legs will clear and I won't pay commissions (or pay less commissions) and get a huge tax break, you could be wrong, as in after hours the market might go back to $104.98. Then you're screwed, only the 100 option gets exercised and you go into margin call. I'm convinced when your near a strike the market makers manipulate the after hours markets to have this happen.

 

Of course if you have enough cash in your account, you won't get margin called -- you're risk profile will just be largely out of whack.

 

And this isn't to say you can't have a big benefit from this. My single most profitable trade EVER occurred on a spread that was $.50 above the line, I didn't close it, and then in after hours the price dropped. So I got assigned long on the lower strike. Well, that weekend there was big news involving the company and the price jumped 15% the next morning. In that case, here's what happens -- I own the 100 (long) /105 (short) vertical. After hours, the price is $104.92. Well that spread was worth $4.85 at close on 20 contracts, or $9,700. Well, Saturday I'm now the proud owner of 2,000 shares bought at $100.00 each, for a net cost of $200,000 -- oops. Margin call, broker call, broker email, etc. Well they inform me the trade will immediately close at open on Monday. Well the price jumped, and the position was closed, at $240,000.00. My original investment of $8,500.00, that I didn't want to close at $9,700.00, netted me $40,000.00, or roughly a 470% return. BUT, what if the price had gone down 20%? Well I would be owing my broker money and have completely blown out my account.

 

If you have ANY questions on this, please let me know.

 

Now SITUATION TWO -- and you will, sooner or later, encounter this. Let's say we have that same 100(long)/105 (short) spread on XYZ. Only we own the September spread and today (Friday) XYZ closes at 103. No bigger. UNLESS someone exercises their 100 spread. American style options can be exercised at anytime. Why would this happen with time value? Who knows, most likely someone needed to unwind a position, hedge something, take profits, any number of things really.

 

Well if you had a 10 contract position, on Saturday your account is now down $100,000.00 in cash and you won 1,000 shares of XYZ. You will again go into margin call. However, while this is a headache and you will have to deal with your broker, you don't need to panic because the position is still hedged. You can certainly still lose money -- but only up to the 105 line.

 

What happens? Well your broker will force you to exit the position Monday morning at the open. If you BEG and wheedle, the broker might let you close the position yourself, so you can close at the mid point instead of just a market order. They should let you do this because the position is still hedged, but you are technically in a Reg T violation, so they won't let you hold it for long. Monday you'll have to sell your shares and buy back the short calls. This should be, at worst, a break even situation because of the time value left in the short calls. However, markets fluctuate and you might have to sell your stock at something like 104 and by the time you exit the short calls its up to 105 (or you get a bad fill price) so you give back some.

 

When this happens, take your lumps and move on. I have this happen about once a quarter and my worse loss was 4%. There's nothing you can do to protect against this. You are hedged, and you won't blow your account out, but it does suck.

 

I hope that clears some things. If not, please let us know.

 

By Christopher B. Welsh

 

Christopher B. Welsh is a SteadyOptions contributor. He is a licensed investment advisor in the State of Texas and is the president of a small investment firm, Lorintine Capital, LP which is a general partner of two separate private funds. He offers investment advice to his clients, both in the law practice and outside of it. Chris is an active litigator and assists his clients with all aspects of their business, from start-up through closing.

 

Chris is managing the Anchor Trades portfolio.

What Is SteadyOptions?

Full Trading Plan

Complete Portfolio Approach

Diversified Options Strategies

Exclusive Community Forum

Steady And Consistent Gains

High Quality Education

Risk Management, Portfolio Size

Performance based on real fills

Try It Free

Non-directional Options Strategies

10-15 trade Ideas Per Month

Targets 5-7% Monthly Net Return

Visit our Education Center

Recent Articles

Articles

  • The Wheel Trade

    The “wheel” trade is variously described as a beginner’s strategy, a combination to exploit features of both calls and puts, and as “perfect” solution to the well-known risks of shorting calls, even when covered. The wheel could be defined as any of these, but a larger question should be: Is the wheel an elegant method for making profits consistently, or just a gimmick?

    By Michael C. Thomsett,

    • 0 comments
    • 265 views
  • Chooser Options

    Most options traders see their world as a choice between calls or puts, alone or in various combinations. But there is more. With a chooser option, traders can open a position and decide later whether it will be a call or a put. This is also called an as you like it option.

    By Michael C. Thomsett,

    • 0 comments
    • 266 views
  • Leveraged Anchor 2020 Year In Review

    Steady Options has now been trading the Leveraged Anchor strategy for two years, and, somewhat to my surprise, 2020 went even better than 2019. On the year, Leveraged Anchor was up 31.7%, while the total return of the S&P 500 was 18.4%.

    By cwelsh,

    • 2 comments
    • 879 views
  • Ratchet Options

    The “ratchet option” is so-called because as a series, each successive position activates when the previous option has expired. The trader ratchets up (or down) to the next position. Each one is set up to be as close to the money as possible. It has many names, including cliquet, moving strike, ladder, lock-in, or reset option.

    By Michael C. Thomsett,

    • 0 comments
    • 286 views
  • Steady Momentum 2020 Year in Review

    Steady Momentum Put Write (SMPW) is one of the available subscription services at Steady Options. We launched the strategy in early 2019, so we now have two years of performance to evaluate on both an absolute basis and relative to the strategy’s benchmark, PUTW (WisdomTree CBOE S&P 500 PutWrite Strategy Fund). 

    By Jesse,

    • 0 comments
    • 267 views
  • SteadyOptions 2020 Year In Review

    2020 marks our 9th year as a public trading service. It was an excellent year for us. We closed 130 winners out of 194 trades. Our model portfolio produced 117.1% compounded gain on the whole account based on 10% allocation per trade. We had only three losing months in 2020. 

    By Kim,

    • 0 comments
    • 551 views
  • The Jump-Diffusion Pricing Formula

    One of the more complex areas of options analysis involves pricing formulas. The best known among these is the Black Scholes Model (BSM). This is a widely cited method for attempting to determine what the option’s premium should be, but it is deeply flawed.

    By Michael C. Thomsett,

    • 0 comments
    • 320 views
  • Ranges of Exotic Options

    The standard call and put are well known to all option traders, but many exotic and more advanced options can also be opened. Whether a specific broker allows trading in these, and whether a trader has the necessary trading level, are questions to be addressed. This article just defines many of the exotic options that are possible.

    By Michael C. Thomsett,

    • 0 comments
    • 415 views
  • What To Do Before Committing To Trading

    Trading cryptocurrency has become a very popular and significant part of life. While it’s not for everyone, it’s certainly for an awful lot of people. There’s money to be made and areas to be invested in, and people will do what they can to make either a quick buck or an amazing figure.

    By Kim,

    • 0 comments
    • 549 views
  • Accurate Expiration Counting

    Options traders are rightfully concerned with the number of days to expiration of an option. At the time the position is opened, whether long or short, the issue of time decay must be at the forefront of risk evaluation. But is this performed accurately?

    By Michael C. Thomsett,

    • 0 comments
    • 454 views

  Report Article

We want to hear from you!


 

 I am a bit confused,  in situation two nobody else than you can exercise the 100 call rights out of assignment date. You are long call 100 so it is only up to you whether or not to early exercise. What I'm misunderstanding, please?

Edited by Javier

Share this comment


Link to comment
Share on other sites
9 hours ago, Javier said:

 

 I am a bit confused,  in situation two nobody else than you can exercise the 100 call rights out of assignment date. You are long call 100 so it is only up to you whether or not to early exercise. What I'm misunderstanding, please?

You're right. Situation two doesn't make sense because when you're long the 100 call, someone else can't force you to exercise that call before expiration. I think Chris just made a mistake in his example.

Edited by greenspan76

Share this comment


Link to comment
Share on other sites
Guest DreamMaker

Posted

Regarding the advise from the article, " DON'T EVER LET YOURSELF BE ASSIGNED ON A SPREAD THAT'S NOT FAR IN THE MONEY ON BOTH LEGS", how do you prevent the assignment?  Are you just advising that we always close out our spreads instead of relying on them to expire?  It seems there is risk of the short options being assigned any time the position is open, so I don't get how to "don't ever let yourself be assigned" .  I'm new to spreads/options, so I'm just trying to learn what can be done to minimize the assignment risk.  Thanks!

Share this comment


Link to comment
Share on other sites

In my opinion, if the extrinsic (time) value of short ITM option is equal or less than how deep the short option is ITM than it is better to close for loss. The chance to be assigned is greater on the CALL side (opposite the PUT side), because of dividends.

good trading

Share this comment


Link to comment
Share on other sites

Usually assignment makes sense for options owners only if there is very little time value, which happens only when options are deep ITM or very close to expiration. So while in theory assignment can happen any time, in reality it doesn't happen very often, and you can estimate when the chances of assignment are high.

Share this comment


Link to comment
Share on other sites

If you are in margin call, Can your brokerage firm sell your holding at premarket?

Share this comment


Link to comment
Share on other sites


Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account. It's easy and free!


Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.


Sign In Now

Options Trading Blogs Expertido